Acetazolamide

ACETAZOLAMIDEAcetazolamide
TRADE NAMES:

Acetazolam, Apo-Acetazolamide, Diamox, Novozolamide,

Prescription is required.

THERAPEUTIC INDICATIONS
Acetazolamide is a diuretic drug family of inhibitors of monoamine oxidase. It is mostly used in treating certain types of glaucoma, in an attempt to reduce progression. It is also used in the treatment of edema due to heart failure.

Adversistement

DOSAGE
The dose used for glaucoma varies between 250 and 1000 mg per day in two seperate doses. It may take acetazolamide with food if it produces gastrointestinal irritation. For treatment of edema caused by heart failure, the dose is 250 to 375 mg in the morning on both. The action of the drug begins two hours after ingestion and persists for 8 to 12 hours. The maximum drop of intraocular pressure occurs after 4 hours.

ADVERSE EFFECTS
Studies on animals have shown that acetazolamide could affect fetal development, therefore, avoid its use during pregnancy and lactation. People who are allergic to sulfa drugs and thiazides are also likely to react to this product. People with the following conditions must be close medical supervision:

  • Any pathology of the adrenal glands,
  • Diabetes,
  • Gout, liver or kidney disease,
  • An imbalance of electrolytes,
  • Pulmonary emphysema.

POSSIBLE SIDE EFFECTS
Acetazolamide is a diuretic, it is normal to urinate more during its employment. At the beginning of treatment, sometimes people have difficulties such as constipation or diarrhea contrary, drowsiness and a bit of confusion, decreased appetite, nausea and vomiting, sometimes a feeling of malaise, a metallic taste in the mouth, loss of sexual desire, impotence, an unpleasant sensation in the feet, hands, tongue and anus and a myopia temporary everything should return to normal fairly quickly or it may be necessary to stop treatment.

By cons, some people are more severe reactions that require prompt medical consultation: hives, or fever that may indicate an allergy, blood in urine, difficulty or pain passing urine, the confusion, which darkens the skin or yellow, visual disturbances, excessive fatigue and even convulsions. Moreover, as with most diuretics, the danger of a potassium deficiency is always present, and this is manifested by dry mouth, intense thirst, irregular heartbeat, cramps or muscle aches, nausea and vomiting, excessive fatigue and weakness and finally inexplicable mood swings.

The use of acetazolamide for a long period may promote the formation of kidney stones.

DRUG INTERACTIONS
Amphetamines, quinidine, digitalis and lithium interact with acetazolamide. Corticosteroids, carbamazepine, phenobarbital, phenytoin and primidone given concurrently may worsen osteoporosis. Insulin and oral hypoglycemic agents have their effects reduced. Acetazolamide increases the toxicity of aspirin and the effect of other diuretics (especially those who lose potassium).

PRECAUTIONS
To prevent potassium deficiency, it is important to see to eat every day foods that are high. Alcohol, sedatives and antihistamines may increase drowsiness caused by acetazolamide. Blood tests at regular intervals will prevent serious side effects.
Overall Judgement

Acetazolamide should be reserved for patients for whom other treatments do not work. Indeed, while the desired effect in the treatment of glaucoma, is located only at the eye, acetazolamide acts on the whole body and can have serious effects in the long term it is preferable, in most cases, to employ a local treatment in the form of drops, and there are now very effective.

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